Undergraduate Catalog

General Education Requirements

Director: Kundai Chirindo
Administrative Assistant: Dawn Wilson

Lewis & Clark’s General Education program is designed to spark students’ curiosity, encourage them to take intellectual chances, and push them to participate thoughtfully and passionately in a diverse and interdependent world.

In the first year, students take one faculty-led foundational seminar per semester. These small classes (19–25 students) are designed to help students develop the reading, writing, discussion, and analytical skills they will need to succeed in college and life. One of the two courses focuses on interpreting the meaning and significance of texts (CORE 120 Words), while the other focuses on interpreting quantitative information and models (CORE 121 Numbers). Both of these courses allow students to explore a specialized topic of particular interest with a faculty member and a small group of students.

Over the course of their time at L&C, students will fulfill a set of requirements (categories below) designed to ensure they graduate having explored the breadth of the college's curriculum.

Courses meeting General Education requirements (except for First-Year Seminars) may also be counted toward a major. No course may meet more than one General Education requirement, except that a course might satisfy Bibliographic Research in Writing, as well as another requirement. General Education courses account for approximately one-third of each student's total coursework.

Credit earned for independent study, directed study, practica, or internships is not allowed to fulfill General Education requirements. With the exception of Physical Education and Well-Being courses that are only offered for CR/NC, only courses taken for a letter grade will apply to General Education requirements.

First-Year Seminars

(8 semester credits)

Lewis & Clark’s dynamic first-year seminar courses, Words and Numbers, develop students’ skills in analysis and both oral and written communication. These are not one-size-fits-all writing and math courses. Instead, students select from a menu of sections addressing a variety of urgent current issues and profound eternal questions. The foundational abilities honed along the way will begin to equip students for college and for a life of learning, engagement, and leadership.

Each section is designed as an introduction to college inquiry and to our community of scholars. Within each section, a faculty member joins a small group of students in critically exploring a topic about which they share a passion. These courses honor individual student backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences while asking students to challenge themselves to think in new ways and expose themselves to new ideas. All sections engage meaningfully with diversity, equity, and inclusion.

Students take either CORE 120 Words or CORE 121 Numbers in their first semester and the other in their second semester.

Words teaches students to explore the meaning and significance of texts via close reading and analysis, and to express that analysis in writing.

Numbers teaches students to interpret quantitative information presented in various forms and contexts; to understand the logical structure of quantitative arguments; and to use quantitative models, theories, and data to simplify, explain, and make predictions.

First-Year Seminar Requirement

Students must complete the First-Year Seminar requirement in their first two semesters at Lewis & Clark. The two-part program may be completed in either order, but students must enroll in one First-Year Seminar in each semester of their first year.

Students may not withdraw from First-Year Seminar courses.1

Students who (1) fail to successfully complete a First-Year Seminar course, (2) are approved to take a leave of absence during a semester in which taking First-Year Seminar would be required, or (3) obtain an AES deferral must, in each subsequent semester they are in attendance, take at least one First-Year Seminar course until they have satisfied the requirement. No student is allowed to participate in an overseas or off-campus program until the First Year Seminar requirements have been completed.

Students Enrolled in Our Academic English Courses

With the approval of the directors of the General Education and Academic English Studies (AES) programs, undergraduate students enrolled in one or more AES courses may be eligible to defer First-Year Seminar coursework while enrolled in AES courses. Students will be required to enroll in a First-Year Seminar course in the semester following the successful completion of AES 222. Official notification must be made to the Office of the Registrar by the director of AES each semester. At the end of the approved deferral period, students who have deferred First-Year Seminar coursework are required to take CORE 120 Words and CORE 121 Numbers, in either order but in consecutive semesters, regardless of class standing. Students who have deferred First-Year Seminar coursework are bound by all other Core requirements as stated above.

Transfer Students

Students matriculating as transfer students are not required to complete the First-Year Seminar courses.

Courses

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CORE 120 Words

Content: Words teaches students to explore the meaning and significance of texts via close reading and analysis, and to express that analysis orally and in writing. Specific content and topics will vary with instructors.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Special registration for first-year students.
Usually offered: Annually, fall and spring semester.
Semester credits: 4.

Print This Course

CORE 121 Numbers

Content: Numbers teaches students to interpret quantitative information presented in various forms and contexts; to understand the logical structure of quantitative arguments; and to use quantitative models, theories, and data to simplify, explain, and make predictions. Specific content and topics will vary with instructors.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Special registration for first-year students.
Usually offered: Annually, fall and spring semester.
Semester credits: 4.


1 Students may withdraw from a First-Year Seminar course only if withdrawing from all classes during the semester.


Bibliographic Research in Writing

(4 semester credits)

As global citizens, we must speak and act knowledgeably, consider arguments that counter our own, and evaluate the strength of evidence used to support our own and others’ claims. To further these ends, students are required to take one four-credit course that fosters bibliographic research and writing. Bibliographic Research in Writing (BRW)-designated courses familiarize students with modes of critical inquiry by requiring them (1) to discover and document the existing information available on a research question by identifying and evaluating relevant books, articles, and other types of sources, and (2) to create a polished written product that may take the form of a research paper or other academic writing. Students will work closely with faculty in developing and revising their work, make use of print and digital library resources, and draw on the expertise of librarians in the process. The BRW-designated course need not be taken in one’s major. BRW-designated courses may be applied toward a major or minor, and also toward another general education requirement.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a BRW-designated course, students will have:

  • Articulated or investigated a research question that engages with the scholarship of a given field;
  • Identified relevant literature of the scholarship area and documented their research process;
  • Used sources appropriately by considering the information-creation process, authority in context, diversity of perspectives, and the relationship of the sources to one another;
  • Developed a polished written product incorporating revisions based on detailed faculty feedback.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.

Art
ART 355Art and Empire
ART 401Art After 1945
ART 451Theory in Practice
Biology
BIO 335Ecology
BIO 352Animal Behavior
BIO 411Chromatin Structure and Dynamics
English
ENG 235Topics in Literature
ENG 241Text and Image
ENG 281From Scroll to Codex: Working With Medieval Manuscripts
ENG 310Medieval Literature
ENG 314Romanticism in the Age of Revolution
ENG 316Modern British and Irish Literature
ENG 330Chaucer
ENG 333Major Figures
Environmental Studies
ENVS 220Environmental Analysis
ENVS 311(Un)Natural Disasters
ENVS 350Environmental Theory
History
HIST 111Making Modern China
HIST 208Asian American History in the U.S.
HIST 22620th-Century Germany
HIST 227Medieval Europe, 800 to 1400
HIST 229The Holocaust in Comparative Perspective
HIST 230Eastern Europe: Borderlands and Bloodlands
HIST 243African American History Since 1863
HIST 323Modern European Intellectual History
HIST 326History of Soviet Russia
HIST 390Immigration and Asylum Law
Music
MUS 124The Symphony
MUS 142Music and Social Justice
MUS 162History of Western Music I
MUS 163History of Western Music II
MUS 307Topics in Music
MUS 361Writing About Music
Philosophy
PHIL 102Introduction to Philosophy
PHIL 103Ethics
PHIL 201Philosophy of Religion
PHIL 207Indian Philosophy
PHIL 250Philosophical Methods
PHIL 301Ancient Western Philosophy
PHIL 30319th-Century Philosophy
PHIL 307Recent Continental Philosophy
PHIL 314Ethical Theory
Political Science
POLS 201Research Methods in Political Science
POLS 250Transitions to Democracy and Authoritarianism
POLS 253Public Policy
POLS 255Law, Lawyers, and Society
POLS 318Civil Society, Politics, and the State
Religious Studies
RELS 103Asceticism: Self-Discipline in Comparative Perspective
RELS 104Religion and Violence
RELS 224Jewish Origins
RELS 225Christian Origins
RELS 241Religion and Culture of Hindu India
RELS 251Medieval Christianity
RELS 335Gender, Sex, Jews, and Christians: Ancient World
RELS 340Gender in American Religious History
RELS 341Religions of the Northwest
RELS 342Mormonism in the American Religious Context
RELS 350Social and Religious World of Early Judaism and Christianity
RELS 355Sufism: Islamic Mysticism
RELS 357Family, Gender, and Religion: Ethnographic Approaches
RELS 376Religious Fundamentalism
Rhetoric and Media Studies
RHMS 210Public Discourse
RHMS 301Rhetorical Criticism
RHMS 303Discourse Analysis
RHMS 313Politics of Public Memory
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 200Ethnographic Research Methods
SOAN 205Research Theory and Design
Theatre
TH 249Oregon Shakespeare Festival
TH 280Theatre and Society: Global Foundations
TH 283Theatre and Society: Modern Continental Drama
TH 383Topics in Global Theatre and Performance

Creative Arts

(4 semester credits)

The practice and study of the creative arts increase students’ understanding of their own creative powers and potential, the artistry of others, and the historical and cultural contexts surrounding artistic creation. The arts provide us insights into ourselves and into the complexities and ambiguities of artistic representation, meaning, and culture. Students at Lewis & Clark should therefore acquire, as part of their general education, an awareness of this unique yet foundational way of knowing, forging, and experiencing the world and themselves.

Students may fulfill the creative arts requirement either by engaging in the creative process through courses in artistic production (e.g., the creation of studio art, media, design, music performance and composition, dance, theatre, creative writing) or courses in the study of artistic production (e.g., art history, literature, music history and theory, aesthetics).

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a Creative Arts General Education course, students will have demonstrated their knowledge of an art, an artistic process, its meaning, and/or the interpretation of an art through one or more of the following:

  • The production of an artistic artifact/performance;
  • The analysis of artistic technique, form, and/or process;
  • The analysis of the frameworks of artistic production, representation, and reception (e.g., historical, cultural, theoretical, or global).

Students will have also developed their own informed artistic point of view, through cultivating both a sense of receptivity to artistic expression and an understanding of art's materials, techniques, concepts, and forms.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.

Art
ART 100Key Monuments and Ideas in the History of Art
ART 112Digital Media I
ART 113Sculpture I
ART 115Drawing I
ART 116Ceramics I
ART 117APainting Fundamentals
ART 117BFigure Painting
ART 120Photography I
ART 151History of Early East Asian Art
ART 154History of Buddhist Art
ART 201Modern European Art
ART 207Pre-Columbian Art
ART 208Ancient Art of the Mediterranean World
ART 230Baroque Art Worlds
ART 257Urban Experience in China
ART 301Italian Renaissance Art and Architecture
ART 303Realism, Photography, and Print Culture in the 19th Century
ART 309Art of New York
ART 311Studio Seminar on Contemporary Art Theory and Practice
ART 319Modern Architecture
ART 327Special Topics in Studio Art
ART 333Visual Perspectives on Dante's Divine Comedy
ART 355Art and Empire
ART 401Art After 1945
ART 451Theory in Practice
Chinese
CHIN 230Introduction to Chinese Literature in Translation
CHIN 290Topics in Chinese Literature in Translation
English
ENG 100Introductory Topics in Literature
ENG 105The Art of the Novel
ENG 204Masterpieces of Ancient Literature
ENG 205Major Periods and Issues in English Literature
ENG 206Major Periods and Issues in English Literature
ENG 209Introduction to American Literature
ENG 235Topics in Literature
ENG 240The Brontës: Legends and Legacies
ENG 241Text and Image
ENG 243Women Writers
ENG 281From Scroll to Codex: Working With Medieval Manuscripts
ENG 301Poetry Writing
ENG 303Nonfiction Writing 2
ENG 310Medieval Literature
ENG 311Literature of the English Renaissance
ENG 312The Early English Novel
ENG 313Satire and Sentiment, 1660-1780
ENG 314Romanticism in the Age of Revolution
ENG 315The Victorians: Heroes, Decadents, and Madwomen
ENG 316Modern British and Irish Literature
ENG 319Postcolonial Literature: Anglophone Africa, India, Caribbean
ENG 320Inventing America: Literature of Colonialism and the Early Republic, 1540-1830
ENG 321National Sins, National Dreams: American Literature 1830-1865
ENG 322Getting Real: Post-Civil War American Literature
ENG 323American Modernism
ENG 324Mirrors, Maps, Mazes: Post-World War II American Literature
ENG 326African American Literature
ENG 330Chaucer
ENG 331Shakespeare: Early Works
ENG 332Shakespeare: Later Works
ENG 333Major Figures
ENG 334Special Topics in Literature
ENG 340Topics in Literary Theory/Criticism
French
FREN 301French Composition and Conversation
FREN 321Introduction to French Literary Studies
FREN 330Francophone Literature
FREN 340French Literature and Society
FREN 350Topics in French and Francophone Literature
FREN 410Major Periods in French Literature
FREN 450Special Topics
Gender Studies
GEND 300Gender and Aesthetic Expression
German
GERM 230German Literature in Translation
GERM 321Introduction to Literary Studies
GERM 350Topics in German Literature and Culture
GERM 410Major Periods in German Literature From the Beginning to Enlightenment
GERM 450Special Topics In German
Health Studies
HEAL 151Renaissance Medicine
Music

All currently offered music courses apply to the Creative Arts requirement except MUP 100, MUP 299, MUP 499, MUS 244, MUS 299, MUS 444, MUS 489, and MUS 499.

MUS 298 and MUS 398 may only be applied with permission from the department chair.

Overseas and Off-Campus Programs
IS 252The Fine Arts in Contemporary London
IS 26220th Century Art and Architecture
IS 270Irish Literature and Theatre
IS 273Topics in Art History
OCS 233History of New York
Rhetoric and Media Studies
RHMS 200Media Design and Criticism
RHMS 325The Documentary Form
RHMS 360Digital Media and Society
RHMS 375Queer Film and Television
RHMS 425American Cinema Studies: Advanced Analysis and Criticism
RHMS 475Television and American Culture
Russian
RUSS 290Topics in Russian Literature and Culture in Translation
Spanish
SPAN 360Latin America and Spain: Pre-Columbian to Baroque
SPAN 370Latin America and Spain: Enlightenment to the Present
Theatre
TH 104Stage Makeup
TH 106Fundamentals of Movement
TH 107Ballet I
TH 110ATheatre Laboratory
TH 113Acting I: Fundamentals
TH 201Contact Improvisation
TH 209Social Dance Forms: History, Practice, and Social Significance
TH 212Stagecraft
TH 213Acting II: Realism
TH 214Dance in Context: History and Criticism
TH 217Voice and Movement
TH 218Fundamentals of Design
TH 234Stage Lighting
TH 249Oregon Shakespeare Festival
TH 250Theatre in New York
TH 275Introduction to Playwriting
TH 280Theatre and Society: Global Foundations
TH 283Theatre and Society: Modern Continental Drama
TH 301Directing
TH 308Dance Composition and Improvisation
TH 313Acting III: Style
TH 340The History and Theory of Modern and Contemporary Performance
TH 351Rehearsal and Performance: Main Stage Production
TH 356Devised Performance
TH 382American Theatre and Drama: 19th Century to Present
TH 383Topics in Global Theatre and Performance

Culture, Power, and Identity

(4 semester credits)

Courses in this category recognize culture, power, and identity as consequential themes within a liberal arts education. These themes have emerged in a variety of disciplines as critical lenses for grappling with historic and current discrimination, domination, and inequality. These courses also invite us to consider how broader structures of power interact with culture and/or identity to operate with respect to the varied histories and experiences within our community. Courses that meet this requirement approach a variety of topics from a range of analytical perspectives across the full scope of social, cultural, political, economic, scientific, psychological, and artistic processes represented in the Lewis & Clark curriculum. As students investigate the interplay of culture, power, and/or identity, they learn to cultivate practices in communication, critical reflection on their own position, and/or recognition of different experiences, identities, and perspectives.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a Culture, Power, and Identity General Education course, students will have critically examined one or both of the following:

  • The manner in which dynamic structures of culture and power affect society and individuals via social, cultural, political, economic, scientific, psychological, and/or artistic processes in historical and/or contemporary contexts;
  • The ways in which individuals, embedded within structures of power, shape interactions in historical and/or contemporary contexts.

Students will have also cultivated at least one of the following practices:

  • Collaborative and productive communication about culture, power, and/or identity in their community;
  • Critical reflection on their own position in relation to culture and power;
  • Recognition of different experiences, identities, and perspectives.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.

Art
ART 113Sculpture I
ART 151History of Early East Asian Art
ART 154History of Buddhist Art
ART 201Modern European Art
ART 207Pre-Columbian Art
ART 257Urban Experience in China
ART 303Realism, Photography, and Print Culture in the 19th Century
ART 355Art and Empire
ART 401Art After 1945
Asian Studies
AS 100Introduction to Contemporary Asian Studies
Classics
CLAS 324Roman Women
Economics
ECON 220The Financial System and the Economy
ECON 250Radical Political Economics
English
ENG 326African American Literature
Environmental Studies
ENVS 295Environmental Engagement
ENVS 311(Un)Natural Disasters
ENVS 350Environmental Theory
Ethnic Studies
ETHS 400Topics in Race and Ethnic Studies
French
FREN 330Francophone Literature
FREN 340French Literature and Society
Gender Studies
GEND 200Genders and Sexualities in U.S. Society
GEND 231Genders and Sexualities in Global Perspective
History
HIST 111Making Modern China
HIST 112Making Modern Japan
HIST 121Modern European History
HIST 134United States: Revolution to Empire
HIST 135United States: Empire to Superpower
HIST 141Colonial Latin American History
HIST 142Modern Latin American History
HIST 208Asian American History in the U.S.
HIST 209Japan at War
HIST 217The Emergence of Modern South Asia
HIST 221Tudor and Stuart Britain, 1485 to 1688
HIST 222Britain in the Age of Revolution, 1688 to 1815
HIST 224The Making of Modern Britain, 1815 to Present
HIST 22620th-Century Germany
HIST 229The Holocaust in Comparative Perspective
HIST 230Eastern Europe: Borderlands and Bloodlands
HIST 231AU.S. Women's History, 1600 to 1980
HIST 239Constructing the American Landscape
HIST 240Race and Ethnicity in the United States
HIST 242Borderlands: U.S.-Mexico Border, 16th Century to Present
HIST 243African American History Since 1863
HIST 259India in the Age of Empire
HIST 261Global Environmental History
HIST 264From Stumptown to Portlandia: The History of Portland
HIST 313Religion, Society, and the State in Japanese History
HIST 316Popular Culture and Everyday Life in Japanese History
HIST 325History of Islam in Europe
HIST 328The British Empire
HIST 338Crime and Punishment in the United States
HIST 345Race and Nation in Latin America
HIST 347Modern Mexico: Culture, Politics, and Economic Crisis
HIST 348Modern Cuba
HIST 388What's for Dinner
HIST 390Immigration and Asylum Law
Music
MUS 104Sound and Sense: Understanding Music
MUS 106Workshops in World Music
MUS 142Music and Social Justice
MUS 236Music of Asia
MUS 237Music of Latin America
MUS 301Portland Music Scenes
MUS 307Topics in Music
Overseas and Off-Campus Programs
IS 210Area Studies: East Africa History, Culture, and Change
IS 211Contemporary East Africa
IS 216Moroccan Modernity
IS 217Gender and Society in Morocco
IS 230The Politics of Cultures: Religion, Education, Environment, and the Arts
IS 236Political Ecology of Forests
IS 251Contemporary England
IS 261Contemporary Germany
IS 268Irish Life & Cultures
IS 269The Irish Welfare System
IS 276Emigration in Italy and Europe During the Globalization Era
IS 284Contemporary Ecuador
IS 291Contemporary Australia
IS 292Indigenous Studies
Philosophy
PHIL 103Ethics
PHIL 201Philosophy of Religion
PHIL 207Indian Philosophy
PHIL 215Philosophy and the Environment
PHIL 30319th-Century Philosophy
PHIL 307Recent Continental Philosophy
PHIL 314Ethical Theory
Political Science
POLS 301American Constitutional Law: Equal Protection and Due Process
POLS 310Pillars of Western Political Thought: Plato to Machiavelli
POLS 311Pillars of Western Political Thought: Revolution and the Social Contract
POLS 312Pillars of Western Political Thought: The Fate of Democracy
POLS 313Global Justice
POLS 316Ethics and Public Policy
POLS 359Religion and Politics
Psychology
PSY 440Social Construction of Madness
PSY 465Advanced Topics in Social Psychology
Religious Studies
RELS 105Apocalyptic Imagination
RELS 224Jewish Origins
RELS 225Christian Origins
RELS 228Power, Politics, and Scripture
RELS 253Prophets, Seekers, and Heretics: U.S. Religious History from 1492 to 1865
RELS 254Religion in Modern America, 1865 to Present
RELS 274Islam in the Modern World
RELS 335Gender, Sex, Jews, and Christians: Ancient World
RELS 340Gender in American Religious History
RELS 357Family, Gender, and Religion: Ethnographic Approaches
RELS 376Religious Fundamentalism
Rhetoric and Media Studies
RHMS 302Media Theory
RHMS 313Politics of Public Memory
RHMS 315Comparative Rhetoric
RHMS 320Health Narratives
RHMS 321Argument and Social Justice
RHMS 332Rhetoric of Gender in Relationships
RHMS 360Digital Media and Society
RHMS 375Queer Film and Television
RHMS 408Argument and Persuasion in Science
RHMS 431Feminist Discourse Analysis
RHMS 475Television and American Culture
Russian
RUSS 290Topics in Russian Literature and Culture in Translation
Sociology/Anthropology
SOAN 100Introduction to Sociology
SOAN 110Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
SOAN 214Social Change
SOAN 216Social Power of Music
SOAN 221Work, Leisure, and Consumption
SOAN 225Race and Ethnicity in Global Perspective
SOAN 261Gender and Sexuality in Latin America
SOAN 266Social Change in Latin America
SOAN 282Pacific Rim Cities
SOAN 284Anthropology of Print Media
SOAN 285Culture and Power in the Middle East
SOAN 300Social Theory
SOAN 310Religion, Society, and Modernity
SOAN 321Theory Through Ethnography
SOAN 342Power and Resistance
SOAN 347Borderlands: Tibet and the Himalaya
SOAN 349Indigenous Peoples: Identities and Politics
SOAN 360Colonialism and Postcolonialism
Theatre
TH 209Social Dance Forms: History, Practice, and Social Significance
TH 214Dance in Context: History and Criticism
TH 280Theatre and Society: Global Foundations
TH 382American Theatre and Drama: 19th Century to Present
TH 383Topics in Global Theatre and Performance

Global Perspectives

(4 semester credits)

To become educated citizens of an interdependent world, all Lewis & Clark students are expected to gain a critical understanding of perspectives, politics, economics, societies, religions, creative arts, and/or cultures distinct from the United States, sometimes through comparison with the United States. This understanding can occur either through immersion in the culture of another global region as part of an overseas study program or via a classroom experience.

Learning Outcomes


Upon completing the Global Perspective requirement, students will have:

  • Gained a critical understanding of perspectives, politics, economics, societies, religions, creative arts, and/or cultures distinct from those of the United States, or of regional or global trends therein; and/or
  • Fostered recognition and development of cross-cultural skills by comparing United States perspectives in politics, economics, societies, religions, creative arts, and/or cultures with those of other countries and regions.

Students may fulfill the Global Perspectives requirement in one of two ways:

  • By successfully completing at least 8 credits on a fall, spring, or summer semester Lewis & Clark overseas study program.
  • By successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.
Art
ART 100Key Monuments and Ideas in the History of Art
ART 151History of Early East Asian Art
ART 154History of Buddhist Art
ART 201Modern European Art
ART 207Pre-Columbian Art
ART 208Ancient Art of the Mediterranean World
ART 230Baroque Art Worlds
ART 257Urban Experience in China
ART 301Italian Renaissance Art and Architecture
ART 333Visual Perspectives on Dante's Divine Comedy
ART 355Art and Empire
Asian Studies
AS 100Introduction to Contemporary Asian Studies
Chinese
CHIN 230Introduction to Chinese Literature in Translation
CHIN 290Topics in Chinese Literature in Translation
Classics
CLAS 201Introduction to Ancient Greek Thought and Culture
CLAS 202Introduction to Ancient Roman Thought and Culture
CLAS 320Greek and Roman Epic
CLAS 324Roman Women
Economics
ECON 232Economic Development
ECON 312Global Health Economics
ECON 314International Finance
English
ENG 316Modern British and Irish Literature
ENG 319Postcolonial Literature: Anglophone Africa, India, Caribbean
Environmental Studies
ENVS 160Introduction to Environmental Studies
ENVS 200Situating the Global Environment
French
FREN 202Intermediate French II: Reading in Cultural Context
FREN 301French Composition and Conversation
FREN 321Introduction to French Literary Studies
FREN 330Francophone Literature
FREN 340French Literature and Society
FREN 350Topics in French and Francophone Literature
FREN 410Major Periods in French Literature
FREN 450Special Topics
Gender Studies
GEND 231Genders and Sexualities in Global Perspective
German
GERM 230German Literature in Translation
GERM 301German Composition and Conversation
GERM 321Introduction to Literary Studies
GERM 350Topics in German Literature and Culture
GERM 410Major Periods in German Literature From the Beginning to Enlightenment
GERM 450Special Topics In German
History
HIST 110Early East Asian History
HIST 111Making Modern China
HIST 112Making Modern Japan
HIST 121Modern European History
HIST 141Colonial Latin American History
HIST 142Modern Latin American History
HIST 209Japan at War
HIST 216Ancient Greece
HIST 217The Emergence of Modern South Asia
HIST 219Ancient Rome: From Republic to Empire
HIST 221Tudor and Stuart Britain, 1485 to 1688
HIST 222Britain in the Age of Revolution, 1688 to 1815
HIST 224The Making of Modern Britain, 1815 to Present
HIST 22620th-Century Germany
HIST 229The Holocaust in Comparative Perspective
HIST 230Eastern Europe: Borderlands and Bloodlands
HIST 242Borderlands: U.S.-Mexico Border, 16th Century to Present
HIST 259India in the Age of Empire
HIST 261Global Environmental History
HIST 288China in the News: Socio-Anthropological and Historical Perspective on Modern China
HIST 313Religion, Society, and the State in Japanese History
HIST 316Popular Culture and Everyday Life in Japanese History
HIST 323Modern European Intellectual History
HIST 325History of Islam in Europe
HIST 326History of Soviet Russia
HIST 328The British Empire
HIST 345Race and Nation in Latin America
HIST 347Modern Mexico: Culture, Politics, and Economic Crisis
HIST 348Modern Cuba
HIST 388What's for Dinner
HIST 390Immigration and Asylum Law
International Affairs
IA 100Introduction to International Relations
IA 342Perception and International Relations
Music
MUS 106Workshops in World Music
MUS 124The Symphony
MUS 142Music and Social Justice
MUS 162History of Western Music I
MUS 163History of Western Music II
MUS 236Music of Asia
MUS 237Music of Latin America
MUS 301Portland Music Scenes
MUS 307Topics in Music
MUS 362Topics in History and Music I
Music Performance
MUP 121Gamelan Ensemble
MUP 125African Mbira Class
MUP 138Beginning African Marimba Ensemble
MUP 150Beginning Ghanaian Music and Dance Ensemble
MUP 152Hindustani Voice Class
MUP 153Hindustani Voice Private Lessons
MUP 154Beginning Indian Instrumental Music Class
MUP 155Sitar Private Lessons
MUP 157Tabla Private Lessons
MUP 158Charango Private Lessons
MUP 159Cuatro Private Lessons
MUP 169Flamenco Guitar Private Lessons
MUP 197Ghanaian Percussion Private Lessons
MUP 238Intermediate African Marimba Ensemble
MUP 250Intermediate Ghanaian Music and Dance Ensemble
Overseas and Off-Campus Programs
IS 210Area Studies: East Africa History, Culture, and Change
IS 211Contemporary East Africa
IS 215Morocco: Development & Sustainability
IS 216Moroccan Modernity
IS 217Gender and Society in Morocco
IS 230The Politics of Cultures: Religion, Education, Environment, and the Arts
IS 235Thai Language and Society
IS 236Political Ecology of Forests
IS 237Culture and Ecology of the Andaman
IS 251Contemporary England
IS 252The Fine Arts in Contemporary London
IS 256Topics in Humanities: London
IS 259Modern Greece: Language and Culture
IS 260History of Modern Berlin: From 1815 to Present
IS 261Contemporary Germany
IS 26220th Century Art and Architecture
IS 263Metropolitan Development: Urban Studies in Comparative Perspective
IS 268Irish Life & Cultures
IS 269The Irish Welfare System
IS 270Irish Literature and Theatre
IS 273Topics in Art History
IS 274Religious Cultures and Traditions in Italy
IS 275Introduction to Sociolinguistics
IS 276Emigration in Italy and Europe During the Globalization Era
IS 284Contemporary Ecuador
IS 290Area Study: Australia
IS 291Contemporary Australia
IS 292Indigenous Studies
IS 296Environment, Society & Natural Resource Management
Philosophy
PHIL 201Philosophy of Religion
PHIL 207Indian Philosophy
PHIL 301Ancient Western Philosophy
PHIL 30319th-Century Philosophy
PHIL 307Recent Continental Philosophy
Political Science
POLS 102Introduction to Comparative Politics
POLS 250Transitions to Democracy and Authoritarianism
POLS 310Pillars of Western Political Thought: Plato to Machiavelli
POLS 311Pillars of Western Political Thought: Revolution and the Social Contract
POLS 312Pillars of Western Political Thought: The Fate of Democracy
POLS 314Russian Politics in Comparative Perspective
POLS 318Civil Society, Politics, and the State
POLS 325European Politics
Psychology
PSY 190Culture, Film, and Psychology
PSY 390Cross-Cultural Psychology
Religious Studies
RELS 103Asceticism: Self-Discipline in Comparative Perspective
RELS 241Religion and Culture of Hindu India
RELS 242Religions and Cultures of East Asia
RELS 243Buddhism: Theory, Culture, and Practice
RELS 273Islamic Origins
RELS 274Islam in the Modern World
RELS 355Sufism: Islamic Mysticism
RELS 357Family, Gender, and Religion: Ethnographic Approaches
RELS 453Seminar in Islamic Studies: Islamic Law
Rhetoric and Media Studies
RHMS 313Politics of Public Memory
RHMS 315Comparative Rhetoric
Russian
RUSS 290Topics in Russian Literature and Culture in Translation
RUSS 351Russian Composition and Conversation
Sociology/Anthropology
SOAN 215International Migration
SOAN 225Race and Ethnicity in Global Perspective
SOAN 250Southeast Asia: Development, Resistance, and Social Change
SOAN 261Gender and Sexuality in Latin America
SOAN 265Critical Perspectives on Development
SOAN 266Social Change in Latin America
SOAN 282Pacific Rim Cities
SOAN 284Anthropology of Print Media
SOAN 285Culture and Power in the Middle East
SOAN 310Religion, Society, and Modernity
SOAN 342Power and Resistance
SOAN 347Borderlands: Tibet and the Himalaya
SOAN 349Indigenous Peoples: Identities and Politics
SOAN 350Global Inequality
SOAN 360Colonialism and Postcolonialism
SOAN 367Anthropology of Tourism: Travel in Asia
Spanish
SPAN 360Latin America and Spain: Pre-Columbian to Baroque
SPAN 370Latin America and Spain: Enlightenment to the Present
Theatre
TH 280Theatre and Society: Global Foundations
TH 283Theatre and Society: Modern Continental Drama
TH 383Topics in Global Theatre and Performance

Historical Perspectives

(4 semester credits)

Global citizenship requires us to understand perspectives and contexts other than our own. These contexts and perspectives may be geographic and cultural, and they may be temporal. The Historical Perspectives requirement engages students in explanations and understandings from outside our present moment that illustrate how our present arises from our past. Historical Perspectives courses attend to the ways the stories we tell about the past are themselves historically influenced by cultural, social, political, economic, and religious motivations, and to the ways that our current explanations and understandings of the world are contingent. By studying events, texts, art, artifacts, and ideas from the past—and the narratives we construct about them—students expand their imaginative and interpretative capacities and cultivate skepticism and humility in understanding the world beyond the present moment.

Courses fulfilling the Historical Perspectives requirement present students with opportunities to learn about events, texts, art, artifacts, or ideas significantly removed from the present perspective, i.e., prior to 1945, a year marking a significant break in global history.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a Historical Perspectives General Education course, students will have:

  • Explained and demonstrated an understanding of contexts or perspectives from outside the current era;
  • Explained or evaluated events, texts, art, artifacts, or ideas from before 1945, including primary sources;
  • Placed cultures, events, objects, texts, or ideas from before 1945 in conversation with one another and/or with the present moment.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.

Art
ART 100Key Monuments and Ideas in the History of Art
ART 151History of Early East Asian Art
ART 154History of Buddhist Art
ART 201Modern European Art
ART 207Pre-Columbian Art
ART 208Ancient Art of the Mediterranean World
ART 230Baroque Art Worlds
ART 257Urban Experience in China
ART 301Italian Renaissance Art and Architecture
ART 303Realism, Photography, and Print Culture in the 19th Century
ART 319Modern Architecture
ART 333Visual Perspectives on Dante's Divine Comedy
ART 355Art and Empire
Classics
CLAS 100Ancient Greek Myth: Gods and Goddesses, Heroines and Heroes
CLAS 201Introduction to Ancient Greek Thought and Culture
CLAS 202Introduction to Ancient Roman Thought and Culture
CLAS 320Greek and Roman Epic
CLAS 324Roman Women
English
ENG 204Masterpieces of Ancient Literature
ENG 209Introduction to American Literature
ENG 240The Brontës: Legends and Legacies
ENG 281From Scroll to Codex: Working With Medieval Manuscripts
ENG 310Medieval Literature
ENG 312The Early English Novel
ENG 313Satire and Sentiment, 1660-1780
ENG 314Romanticism in the Age of Revolution
ENG 315The Victorians: Heroes, Decadents, and Madwomen
ENG 316Modern British and Irish Literature
ENG 320Inventing America: Literature of Colonialism and the Early Republic, 1540-1830
ENG 321National Sins, National Dreams: American Literature 1830-1865
ENG 322Getting Real: Post-Civil War American Literature
ENG 323American Modernism
ENG 326African American Literature
ENG 330Chaucer
French
FREN 340French Literature and Society
FREN 350Topics in French and Francophone Literature
FREN 410Major Periods in French Literature
German
GERM 450Special Topics In German
Health Studies
HEAL 151Renaissance Medicine
History
HIST 110Early East Asian History
HIST 111Making Modern China
HIST 112Making Modern Japan
HIST 120Early European History
HIST 121Modern European History
HIST 134United States: Revolution to Empire
HIST 141Colonial Latin American History
HIST 142Modern Latin American History
HIST 208Asian American History in the U.S.
HIST 209Japan at War
HIST 216Ancient Greece
HIST 217The Emergence of Modern South Asia
HIST 219Ancient Rome: From Republic to Empire
HIST 221Tudor and Stuart Britain, 1485 to 1688
HIST 222Britain in the Age of Revolution, 1688 to 1815
HIST 224The Making of Modern Britain, 1815 to Present
HIST 22620th-Century Germany
HIST 227Medieval Europe, 800 to 1400
HIST 229The Holocaust in Comparative Perspective
HIST 230Eastern Europe: Borderlands and Bloodlands
HIST 231AU.S. Women's History, 1600 to 1980
HIST 240Race and Ethnicity in the United States
HIST 242Borderlands: U.S.-Mexico Border, 16th Century to Present
HIST 243African American History Since 1863
HIST 259India in the Age of Empire
HIST 261Global Environmental History
HIST 313Religion, Society, and the State in Japanese History
HIST 316Popular Culture and Everyday Life in Japanese History
HIST 323Modern European Intellectual History
HIST 325History of Islam in Europe
HIST 326History of Soviet Russia
HIST 328The British Empire
HIST 345Race and Nation in Latin America
HIST 347Modern Mexico: Culture, Politics, and Economic Crisis
HIST 348Modern Cuba
Music
MUS 104Sound and Sense: Understanding Music
MUS 124The Symphony
MUS 150Music Theory I
MUS 162History of Western Music I
MUS 163History of Western Music II
MUS 200Music Theory II
MUS 236Music of Asia
MUS 237Music of Latin America
MUS 250Music Theory III
MUS 280Vocal Literature
MUS 300Music Theory IV: Contemporary
MUS 307Topics in Music
MUS 342Counterpoint
MUS 362Topics in History and Music I
MUS 490Senior Project
Overseas and Off-Campus Programs
IS 210Area Studies: East Africa History, Culture, and Change
IS 260History of Modern Berlin: From 1815 to Present
IS 26220th Century Art and Architecture
IS 273Topics in Art History
IS 274Religious Cultures and Traditions in Italy
IS 284Contemporary Ecuador
OCS 233History of New York
Philosophy
PHIL 102Introduction to Philosophy
PHIL 201Philosophy of Religion
PHIL 207Indian Philosophy
PHIL 301Ancient Western Philosophy
PHIL 302Early Modern Philosophy
PHIL 30319th-Century Philosophy
PHIL 307Recent Continental Philosophy
Political Science
POLS 309American Political Thought
POLS 310Pillars of Western Political Thought: Plato to Machiavelli
POLS 311Pillars of Western Political Thought: Revolution and the Social Contract
POLS 312Pillars of Western Political Thought: The Fate of Democracy
Religious Studies
RELS 102Food and Religion in America
RELS 103Asceticism: Self-Discipline in Comparative Perspective
RELS 105Apocalyptic Imagination
RELS 224Jewish Origins
RELS 225Christian Origins
RELS 241Religion and Culture of Hindu India
RELS 242Religions and Cultures of East Asia
RELS 243Buddhism: Theory, Culture, and Practice
RELS 251Medieval Christianity
RELS 253Prophets, Seekers, and Heretics: U.S. Religious History from 1492 to 1865
RELS 254Religion in Modern America, 1865 to Present
RELS 273Islamic Origins
RELS 335Gender, Sex, Jews, and Christians: Ancient World
RELS 340Gender in American Religious History
RELS 341Religions of the Northwest
RELS 342Mormonism in the American Religious Context
RELS 350Social and Religious World of Early Judaism and Christianity
RELS 355Sufism: Islamic Mysticism
RELS 450Seminar: Social and Religious World of Early Judaism and Christianity
RELS 453Seminar in Islamic Studies: Islamic Law
Rhetoric and Media Studies
RHMS 203Rhetorical Theory
Russian
RUSS 351Russian Composition and Conversation
Theatre
TH 214Dance in Context: History and Criticism
TH 280Theatre and Society: Global Foundations
TH 283Theatre and Society: Modern Continental Drama
TH 313Acting III: Style

Natural Sciences

(4 semester credits)

To prepare for lifelong learning and civic leadership in an interdependent world, students must be familiar with methods of scientific inquiry and reasoning that lead to evidence-based explanations of natural phenomena and inform the development of technology. Lewis & Clark students make necessary progress toward this goal by completing at least one course in the natural sciences.

To register for many of the courses that fulfill this requirement, the student must first do one of the following: (a) earn the appropriate score on a quantitative reasoning examination; (b) receive a score of 4 or 5 on an AP exam in calculus AB or BC; (c) receive a score of 5, 6, or 7 on an International Baccalaureate higher-level mathematics exam; (d) successfully complete QR 101 or another prerequisite course. Some courses (see course descriptions) have additional prerequisites.

Learning outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a Natural Sciences General Education course, students will have:

  • Recognized science as an iterative, exploratory process that requires both reasoning and creativity;
  • Come to understand that scientific principles result from the analysis of evidence collected through experimental or observational approaches;
  • Developed and used skills for analysis and interpretation of scientific data;
  • Demonstrated familiarity with the use of data to generate and answer questions about natural phenomena;
  • Become familiar with the major concepts of at least one field of the natural sciences; and
  • Assessed the broader impact of topics discussed in the course.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 4 semester credits from courses listed below.

Biology
BIO 100Perspectives in Biology
BIO 110Biological Investigations
BIO 115Explorations in Regional Biology
BIO 201Biological Core Concepts: Systems
BIO 202Biological Core Concepts: Mechanisms
BIO 335Ecology
Chemistry
CHEM 100Perspectives in Environmental Chemistry
CHEM 105Perspectives in Nutrition
CHEM 110General Chemistry I
CHEM 120General Chemistry II
CHEM 210Organic Chemistry I
CHEM 220Organic Chemistry II
Entrepreneurial Leadership and Innovation
ELI 290Technologies of the Future
Geology
GEOL 150Environmental Geology
GEOL 170Climate Science
GEOL 270Issues in Oceanography
GEOL 280The Fundamentals of Hydrology
GEOL 340Spatial Problems in Earth System Science
Physics
PHYS 105Astronomy
PHYS 106The Physics of Music
PHYS 110Great Ideas in Physics
PHYS 141Introductory General Physics I
PHYS 142Introductory General Physics II
PHYS 151Physics I: Motion
PHYS 152Physics II: Waves and Matter
Psychology
PSY 350Behavioral Neuroscience
PSY 355Cognitive Neuroscience

Physical Education and Well-Being

(2 courses/2 semester credits)

Physical education is a facet of the liberal arts tradition that stresses the interdependence of the physical, mental, and social dimensions of human experience. Students will learn to recognize and experience the positive benefits of building physical fitness and self-care habits, explore aspects of the body’s structure and function, and engage in experiences within a group or community setting.

The wide array of classes that satisfy this requirement are offered at many levels and modes of engagement, including physical education courses (with dozens of options from weightlifting to rock climbing to yoga and meditation), varsity sports, and dance and movement classes. Courses promote personal health and well-being, often serving collective purposes of expression and teamwork. Students learn to challenge themselves by setting goals and measuring progress toward those goals.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the requirements of a Physical Education and Well-Being course, students will have:

  • Learned to recognize and experience the positive benefits of building physical well-being and self-care habits as part of the liberal arts tradition;
  • Explored structural and functional aspects of their bodies as part of a healthy relationship with the body;
  • Discovered connections between the mind and body; and
  • Engaged in these experiences within a group or community setting.

Students can meet the requirement by successfully completing at least 2 courses (for a minimum of 2 semester credits) from courses listed below.

Physical Education and Well-Being
PE/A 101Activities
PE/A 102Varsity Athletics
PE/A 142Wilderness Leadership
Music
MUS 281Art & Science of the Voice
MUS 346Conducting
MUS 347Advanced Conducting
Music Performance
MUP 115Voces Auream Treble Chorus
MUP 116Community Chorale
MUP 117Cappella Nova
MUP 118Vocal Performance Workshop
MUP 131Beginning Voice Class
MUP 150Beginning Ghanaian Music and Dance Ensemble
MUP 250Intermediate Ghanaian Music and Dance Ensemble
Theatre*
TH 106Fundamentals of Movement
TH 201Contact Improvisation
TH 209Social Dance Forms: History, Practice, and Social Significance
TH 308Dance Composition and Improvisation

Students may register for no more than one 101 course per semester, except in the summer semester when one course may be taken each session. The maximum credit in Activities (PE/A 101), Varsity Athletics (PE/A 102), and Wilderness Leadership (PE/A 142) courses that may be applied toward the 128 credits required for graduation is 4 semester credits.


* Theatre and music courses counting toward this requirement may be taken credit/no credit if that grading option is available for the course.

World Language

(Language Other Than English proficiency requirement)

The study of a language other than one’s own has always been a hallmark of a liberal education and is all the more important in today’s interdependent world. Learning a new language reveals nuances and subtleties that yield insight into cultural practices, values, belief systems, and everyday life in the contemporary world and/or in historical contexts.

At Lewis & Clark in particular, language learning has a place of central importance, both because of Lewis & Clark’s historical commitment to global perspectives and because encounters with diverse cultures have become an integral part of the undergraduate program. Not only does language study enhance our appreciation for and sensitivity to the world around us, it also better enables us to understand and appreciate our own languages and cultures. World language proficiency, whether in a modern or classical language, is a requirement for all Lewis & Clark students.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing the World Language General Education requirement, students will have demonstrated proficiency in a language other than English by having

  • Obtained a passing grade in any World or Classical Language course at the 201 level; or
  • Achieved an ACTFL score (for modern languages) equivalent to the 201 level in both Speaking and Writing; or
  • Met the SCS guidelines (for classical languages) equivalent to the 201 level in reading and translation skills.

Students completing this requirement will have also acquired a familiarity with the cultural, historical, and/or literary contexts of the language studied.

A student can satisfy this requirement in either of the following waysi:

  • By completing study of a language other than English through the 201 level, either on campus or by completing an approved overseas program. (The list of approved programs is available from the Office of Overseas and Off-Campus Programs.)
  • By placing into 202 or above on a language placement examination for a language other than English. (Language placement examinations must be provided by a regionally accredited institution.)ii

Students admitted as international students whose first language is not English are exempt from the World Language requirement.

ii Students admitted as U.S. citizens or dual citizens who have acquired non-English language proficiency by virtue of living in another country must complete a language placement examination from a regionally accredited institution. If no regionally accredited institution offers a placement examination in the language, other testing alternatives may be available. Please see the registrar’s office for information and procedure.