Graduate Catalog

Reading Endorsement: Language and Literacy Program

The Lewis & Clark Reading Endorsement: Language and Literacy Program applies a dynamic view of literacy to reading and writing instruction in schools. The program's theoretical base owes much to the work of Donald Murray, Linda Rief, Stephanie Harvey, Ellin Keene, Stephen Krashen, Donald Graves, Louise Rosenblatt, and others who believe that reading, writing, listening, and speaking are all language processes. Language users interact with text—oral, written, and visual—to construct meaning and create meaningful stories.

The Language and Literacy Program builds on the knowledge that language, in all its richness of form and function, is the foundation from which effective literacy evolves. The program takes an integrated and holistic approach to the teaching of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Students and teachers develop flexible strategies to support the reader's construction of meaning from text. Adopting the stance of teacher-researchers, students and faculty explore issues in the teaching of reading and writing. What is literacy? How does our own literacy affect our instruction of language arts? What are the politics of literacy? What can we learn from current research in thought, language, reading, and writing?

To apply this philosophy to the realities of the school world, teachers of language and literacy must know how people—especially children—learn. Teachers must also be able to apply this understanding to language and literacy development in a wide variety of cultures and subcultures. The goal of this program is to give educators the tools to observe, describe, and learn from the behaviors of their students and to build cohesive theoretical bases for learner-centered literacy programs.

Students who complete the courses in the Language and Literacy Program and pass the required test, are recommended to the Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission for a Reading endorsement, allowing candidates to teach reading in grades pre-K-12. For educators admitted prior to September 2014 who hold an Oregon Initial II Teaching License, the program also includes the requirements for the Continuing Teaching License [updated 9/22/2014]. The program can be completed in 18 months of part-time coursework or may be completed in conjunction with a master of arts in education (M.Ed.) degree through the Curriculum and Instruction Program.

Accreditation

Lewis & Clark's graduate programs leading to licensure and endorsement are approved by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission (TSPC).

Reading Endorsement

Endorsement Requirements

A minimum of 14 to 15 semester hours, distributed as follows, and all required tests

Required Courses
LA 500/​LA 634Language Acquisition and Development3
or ESOL 507/​ESOL 607 Language Acquisition and Development
LA 534/​LA 614Reading Comprehension: Theory and Practical Application3
ED 532/​ED 625Practicum I: Assessing Reading Strategies3
LA 502/​LA 620Practicum II: Innovations in Reading, pre-K-123

(Although courses are not arranged in a fixed sequence, LA 500/ESOL 507 is considered the foundation course and LA 502 the culmination of the program.)

Elective Courses

Each program participant selects a language arts elective in consultation with an advisor. Possible subject-area electives include:

LA 501/​LA 632Researching and Teaching the Language Arts3
LA 515Drama for Learning and Social Action2
LA 530Children's Writing3
LA 531Writing and the Writing Process2

Note: Other electives may be approved by the faculty advisor. A full list of Language Arts elective courses is available in in this catalog. Writing and Creative Media (WCM) courses offered through Lewis & Clark's Northwest Writing Institute and courses offered through the Oregon Writing Project enrich the programs of M.Ed. students working toward the Reading Endorsement. Interested students should consult their advisors for more information about courses in creative writing that can be integrated into their programs.

Summer Studies - Reading Endorsement

Over the course of two summers, licensed educators may undertake degree-applicable coursework for a graduate endorsement in reading, which may be pursued in conjunction with a master's degree or a Continuing Teaching License. Summer studies coursework is offered in four to six week blocks of full-time study.

Continuing Teaching License

Teachers holding an Oregon Initial I or II Teaching License and who are seeking the Continuing Teaching License are eligible for the professional license by completing the requirements of an endorsement program. The requirements for the Continuing Teaching License are embedded in the following endorsement programs:

By applying to an endorsement program, you are automatically applying to our Continuing Teaching License program. If you successfully complete one of the above endorsement programs, Lewis & Clark will recommended you to the Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission (TSPC) for both the endorsement and an Oregon Continuing Teaching License, if the following conditions have been met:

  1. You have been admitted to and complete the required course work, portfolio, and practica in one of the above-listed endorsement programs
  2. You have completed all requirements of the Initial I and the Initial II licenses
  3. You hold a master's degree or equivalent or higher degree in the arts and sciences or an advanced degree in the professions

Please note that:

  • Applicants to TSPC for the Continuing Teaching License are required to have taught five full years on any non-provisional license appropriate for the assignment; and
  • The NES, ORELA or PRAXIS II subject area test is required in order to apply to TSPC for the endorsement. No tests are required by TSPC for the Continuing Teaching License, but since the license requirements are embedded in endorsement programs at Lewis & Clark, all endorsement candidates will need to complete the appropriate required tests regardless. For details, please view the particular endorsement program page (links above).

Testing Requirements

Students must pass the following test to be eligible for a recommendation by Lewis & Clark for the reading endorsement in any state. Information regarding the point in the program by which this test must be passed is provided in consultation with your faculty advisor. The required test is:

(Passing scores from the PRAXIS II: Reading Specialist Computer (#5301) test are required after September 1, 2012. Passing scores from the PRAXIS II: Reading Specialist (#10300) test will be accepted if taken prior to September 1, 2012.)

Students may view completed tests, including scores, by logging into their WebAdvisor account.

Endorsement Required Courses

Note: The following courses are offered on campus only. Each course listed below has an off-campus equivalent with a 600-level number. You can find the full list of all education courses elsewhere in this catalog.

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LA 500 Language Acquisition and Development

Content: Theories of how first and second languages (written and spoken) are acquired, the importance of first-language development and its relationship to the acquisition of other languages, and the relationship of language to cognitive development. Understanding of these issues is used to promote a school environment that honors diverse perspectives and maximizes language learning potential and ensures respect for communities whose languages or varieties of English differ from standard school English. Required for the Reading and ESOL/Bilingual Education endorsements. The initial course in the Reading Endorsement sequence and recommended preparation for other language arts offerings.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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ESOL 507 Language Acquisition and Development

Content: Theories of how first and second languages (written and spoken) are acquired, the importance of first-language development and its relationship to the acquisition of other languages, and the relationship of language to cognitive development. Understanding of these issues is used to promote a school environment that honors diverse perspectives and maximizes language learning potential and ensures respect for communities whose languages or varieties of English differ from standard school English. Required for the Reading and ESOL/Bilingual Education endorsements. The initial course in the Reading Endorsement sequence and recommended preparation for other language arts offerings.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 534 Reading Comprehension: Theory and Practical Application

Content: In-depth exploration of current models and trends in reading comprehension and its cognitive and linguistic components. Students read widely from professional journals, explore and reflect on their personal reading processes, and do theoretical and practical projects to further their understanding. Examines factors that contribute to reading difficulty (from early childhood through adulthood), as well as important issues and questions about standardized tests, observational diagnostics, readability formulas, and the effectiveness and theoretical validity of published programs.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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ED 532 Practicum I: Assessing Reading Strategies

Content: Seminar practicum for classroom teachers and reading specialists at all grade levels. Topics include a language orientation for diagnosing reading problems, diverse causes and correlates of reading difficulties, assessment procedures in reading, and strategies to facilitate readers' improvement. Each participant assesses a reader, develops a profile of personal strategies, and designs and implements an instructional plan to help the reader develop effective, efficient reading strategies responsive to individual differences, interests, and developmental levels. Participants consider reading issues for students at all four license levels (early childhood, elementary, middle level, and high school)
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 502 Practicum II: Innovations in Reading, pre-K-12

Content: Organizing, managing, and evaluating both classroom and school-wide K-12 reading programs. Students examine the textbook adoption process, participate in the development and use of a tool for evaluating reading texts, assess components of reading and writing programs, and learn to integrate reading and writing processes throughout the school grades to extend learners' experiences and enhance their own and students' capacities to solve literacy problems. This capstone course of the Language and Literacy Program must be taken at the end of the sequence.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Completion of Reading Endorsement courses or consent of instructor.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

Language Arts

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LA 500 Language Acquisition and Development

Content: Theories of how first and second languages (written and spoken) are acquired, the importance of first-language development and its relationship to the acquisition of other languages, and the relationship of language to cognitive development. Understanding of these issues is used to promote a school environment that honors diverse perspectives and maximizes language learning potential and ensures respect for communities whose languages or varieties of English differ from standard school English. Required for the Reading and ESOL/Bilingual Education endorsements. The initial course in the Reading Endorsement sequence and recommended preparation for other language arts offerings.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 501 Researching and Teaching the Language Arts

Content: Development of a framework, based on a wide range of research findings, from which to make informed decisions about curriculum and teaching approaches that engage students in listening, speaking, reading, and writing experiences that are responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts. Emphasis on framing teachers' own classroom inquiry through the adoption of habits of teacher research that focus on personal and scholarly reflection.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 502 Practicum II: Innovations in Reading, pre-K-12

Content: Organizing, managing, and evaluating both classroom and school-wide K-12 reading programs. Students examine the textbook adoption process, participate in the development and use of a tool for evaluating reading texts, assess components of reading and writing programs, and learn to integrate reading and writing processes throughout the school grades to extend learners' experiences and enhance their own and students' capacities to solve literacy problems. This capstone course of the Language and Literacy Program must be taken at the end of the sequence.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Completion of Reading Endorsement courses or consent of instructor.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 504 Bearing Witness: Writing, Documentary Studies, Social Justice

Content: What is the writer's, teacher's, citizen's, or counselor's role in bearing witness? How do we observe, record, and interpret events from the everyday to the unspeakable? In this nonfiction workshop, we'll explore a continuum of creative nonfiction including literary journalism, essay, and memoir. We'll write from our own observations of cultural life, exploring ethical issues as well as style, voice, and literary form. Also listed as WCM-504/604 and CORE-514. listed as WCM 504/604 and CORE 514.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 507 Essay

Content: Participants examine a range of forms from memoir to expository essays inspired by language, cultural issues, and the natural sciences. Approaches explored will include those often associated with fiction: character, setting, and point of view.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 510 Memoir

Content: Writing chapters from one's life story can produce gifts for family, and an important record of community life. In this workshop, we will read short passages from a variety of voices reflecting on lessons learned from life encounters and from interviews we conduct. We will use these passages as prompts for our own writing, leading to a gathering of short life chapters for further reflection and revision over time. No experience necessary, but a willing heart.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 511 Audio Postcards

Content: Drawing on life experience, participants in this workshop will write profiles of personal heroes, encounters with other cultures, moments of creative discovery, and other compact experiences with indelible effects. From these short writings, we will select, deepen, and record our accounts for podcast, and other forms of web-based sharing.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 512 The Gift

Content: How do we maintain self and community in a society driven by market exchange? What are our cultural norms for gifts and reciprocity? How do gifts bind families and communities? How do we discover the "gift of labor," work that satisfies beyond financial compensation? What is the artist's role in a consumer culture? These are among the questions posed by poet Lewis Hyde in his classic study of literary anthropology, The Gift. These are also the questions that motivate our exploration of gifts in this course. We take Hyde's questions as springboards from which to launch our own investigation of culture, community, gift, story, and work.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 514 Writers in Danger

Content: This workshop engages the global perils of the writing life. In collaboration with the PEN Freedom to Write committee, we will examine the case files of international writers currently silenced or imprisoned, then advocate for the writer's relief, and at the same time provide further research on the political conflicts underlying the writer's predicament These enhanced files are returned to PEN to further the work of monitoring freedom of expression around the world. Also listed as WCM-514/614.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 515 Drama for Learning and Social Action

Content: Interactive exploration of drama in the K-8 curriculum that prepares teachers to use drama to engage students in learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts. Through workshops, participants experience drama as an art form; as a medium for language and literacy development and inquiry-centered, multidisciplinary content learning; and as a powerful mode for meaning-making. Through discussion and presentation, students explore historical and current perspectives on educational drama and its potential to support creative, cognitive, physical, emotional, and social development for all children. Reflects a pluralistic drama education perspective that prompts children to engage issues of diversity, examine how cultural knowledge is constructed, critique the dominant culture, and confront questions of social justice.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 516 Telling Lives

Content: Which stories are ours to tell and which carry us into the terrain of others' lives? Our own stories often intersect with those entrusted to us by family, friends, and strangers; all are shaped by the cultures we inhabit. In this workshop, we'll explore biography, ethnography, journalistic portraits, and documentary writing. Our texts will include our own writing as well as works by various writers and practitioners in documentary inquiry.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 518 Healing Power of Story

Content: The hardest times in life can make you "voiceless," but also offer the greatest opportunity for stories. At these times the invitation to tell someone your story can be a critical encouragement in the healing process. As caregivers, teachers, counselors, parents, nurses, doctors, and patients, we will look at our own stories and those of others to practice strength and healing. Through writing, we will explore the uses of journals, fiction, essays, and poetry in the telling and receiving of stories.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 521 Telling Your Story in Documentary Film

Content: Learn the basics of film production and create an original 5-10 minute documentary in this hands-on workshop. Under the guidance of award-winning filmmakers, students will team up to outline, shoot, and edit their own documentary shorts. This collaborative workshop is intended for first-time and intermediate filmmakers, and includes classes on story structure and production. Final projects will be screened at the Homegrown DocFest a the end of the term.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-1.5 semester hours.

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LA 522 Imaginative Writing Seminar: Works in Progress

Content: Open to graduate students and to writers, filmmakers, digital storytellers, and creators in other media, this seminar is a collaborative studio for completing creative work, which also serves as the capstone course for the Certificate in Documentary Studies. The seminar directs the energies of the seminar community on the development of individual works in progress, with reference to the best in contemporary writing and documentary expressions in other media.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 524 Writing in Response to Literature

Content: Increasing teachers' understanding of reader response theory and methodology to support writing in response to literature. Participants will have the opportunity to experience strategies that support informal and formal writing about literature as well as develop and demonstrate teaching strategies and assessment tools that are responsive to middle school and high school students' individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 526 Reading Other Voices

Content: This course will bring together graduate students and educators and counselors from the community to find ways to incorporate culturally sensitive texts in their work. We will draw from a variety of texts that address differences in race and culture such as Pam Munoz Ryan's Esperanza Rising, Sandra Cisneros's Woman Hollering Creek, Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner, Sherman Alexie's Ten Little Indians. We will write from our own cultural backgrounds to uncover how our worldview shapes the reading of works made unfamiliar by different notions of self and community, time, religious and social values. Reading and writing together, we will experience the richness and multiple dimensions of language itself.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 527 Fiction

Content: This workshop is for writers who want to explore or refine the craft of fiction writing in a nurturing and challenging environment. We will read short fiction and discuss-different aspects of storytelling including conflict, plot, character development, atmosphere, point of view and dialogue. Works-in-progress-will be developed through individual conferences with the instructor and in class-discussion.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 530 Children's Writing

Content: Teaching writing to children. Explores ways to create an environment for teaching writing as a process. Teachers read from whole language and writing process theorists and examine ways to implement writing instruction that is responsive to elementary students' individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 531 Writing and the Writing Process

Content: Increasing teachers' understanding of the writing process, primarily by working on their own prose writing. Students write, read their work to peers, and receive feedback. This personal experience provides opportunities to reflect on common writing problems and issues teachers across disciplines encounter in their classrooms. Topics include recent research and theory in composing as well as practical teaching techniques that can be integrated to enhance learners' experiences. Required introductory course in the Middle-Level/High School Program.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Admission to the Middle Level/High School Program.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 533 Field Notes: Observation and Reflection in the Natural World

Content: In a time of increasing attention to human responsibility for the Earth, we begin with the question for teachers and counselors: What are best connections to the natural world—for success as learners, and health as human beings? Writers, scientists, artists, educators, and counselors provide a rich array of responses. Participants will observe nature, begin to practice field notes, and consider opportunities in teaching and counseling practice to attend to right relation with the Earth. Also listed as as WCM-513/613 and ED-536.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 534 Reading Comprehension: Theory and Practical Application

Content: In-depth exploration of current models and trends in reading comprehension and its cognitive and linguistic components. Students read widely from professional journals, explore and reflect on their personal reading processes, and do theoretical and practical projects to further their understanding. Examines factors that contribute to reading difficulty (from early childhood through adulthood), as well as important issues and questions about standardized tests, observational diagnostics, readability formulas, and the effectiveness and theoretical validity of published programs.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 535 Cultural Journalism

Content: Based on community-based education as developed at the Foxfire Project in Georgia, this workshop will emphasize a project approach to teaching and learning. Educators will explore ways to fulfill and go beyond their mandated curriculum, and give students a voice in planning what happens in the classroom. In experiential education students make connections between work at school and the real world and produce a product valued by an audience outside the classroom.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 536 Digital Storytelling

Content: How can teachers, counselors, and others tell stories from their work by combining word, image, and tune? This workshop is a studio experience to assist participants in designing and producing a three- to five-minute digital story that joins narrative, images, and music. Participants craft and record first-person narratives; collect still images, video, and music to deepen the narrative; and follow a process through peer response and instructor support to edit their stories.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 538 Daily Writing in the Spirit of William Stafford

Content: You don't eat just once every few days. You don't speak just every week or so. Learning is continuous, and hunger is closer to breathing than to an annual rite. So why not write daily? In this workshop, we will feed on examples from the daily writing of William Stafford, and practice in the spirit of his work. The emphasis will be on the process of creation: creating texts the length of poems but for use in multiple genres. The goal will be to know what it feels like—in the body and in acts of sustaining witness—to practice the continuous writing life you have imagined.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 544 Practicum

Content: Supervised, on-site, pre-designed professional experience along with campus seminars involving discussions and presentations. Students explore the essential content knowledge, leadership, collaboration, and research skills of successful educators under the supervision of experienced field and campus supervisors.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-5 semester hours.

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LA 545 Exploring Life Stories: The Art of the Interview

Content: Writers, oral historians, ethnographers, teachers, counselors, and families recording their stories all rely on interviews. In this workshop, we'll learn the interviewer's skills: how to listen and observe, frame questions, index and transcribe. We'll write together to bring the interviews to life on the page. We'll examine individual and social memory as well as ethical and political issues. We'll also explore the use of interviews in community projects and as the foundation of documentary studies.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 551 Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare

Content: Four plays by Shakespeare, starting with Othello. Students jointly choose the other three. Students use traditional literary analysis and newer performance-based approaches as they deepen their understanding of Shakespeare and gain techniques for teaching approaches that engage students in meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 564 Curriculum and Inquiry: Language Arts

Content: Organizing and applying appropriate curriculum and teaching approaches to engage middle-level and high school students in meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental readiness, and cultural contexts. Attention to research in language arts curriculum and pedagogy. Participants continue to develop as teacher researchers by refining habits of personal and scholarly reflection that examine their professional practice. Topics include backward design in support of planning and assessment; review and application of curriculum materials; social and political contexts that impact curriculum; exploration of the role of inquiry in language arts; and continued analysis and application of best practice methodology. Students complete two required inquiry work samples.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Admission to Middle-Level/High School Program.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 565 Literature for Children and Adolescents

Content: Exploration of literature for children and adolescents as a healthy, growing body of work and as an important resource for teachers. Class-members investigate available literature, specific authors and illustrators, and their processes of composing. Participants also explore ways to incorporate a rich diet of literary experiences into their students' learning environments in support of meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 570 Readers' Workshop: Coming of Age

Content: Intensive seminar in which students experience a variety of formats for discussion of and written response to literature. Participants read selections of literature based on an author or theme, as well as titles of their choice. Through active participation in the workshop, students explore the transactional nature of reading, and ways to implement teaching approaches introduced in elementary-, middle-, and high-school classrooms in support of meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 574 Personal Voice in Professional Writing

Content: A workshop to explore the power of writing to engage diverse perspectives, ideas, and cultures at the restless boundary between personal insight and professional practice. In our search for equity, social justice, and inclusion, collaborative writing in professional life may be the most important writing we do. As educators our own writing is our best teacher, as counselors our written reflections will give us our best advice, and as leaders our work will be improved by writing about the challenges we face. To foster expressive clarity, the class as a writing community examines reading, collaboration, personal voice, critical thinking, and audience.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 576 Special Studies: Northwest Writing Institute

Content: This course uses writing as a tool for inquiry and creative expression. Taught with varying emphases based on the cultural moment, the course offers Graduate Students and community members practice with writing, and reflection on the chapters in a life, and investigates how the practice of writing can deepen vocation. Students write in a learning community, and share works in progress. Offered in varied formats-meeting weekends, monthly over two terms, or in a traditional structure-to meet the needs of adult learners.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 579 Teaching Language Arts to Adolescents

Content: Teaching and learning English language arts in middle-level and high school classrooms. Develops participants' pedagogical content knowledge by focusing on a student-centered view of teaching literature and composition to adolescents. Participants read about, discuss, and experience the importance of writing to learning and discovery, the student-teacher conference, writing process in theory and practice, the evaluation of writing, the place of writing in literature classes, and the powerful current that can be transmitted among teenage writers. Drawing on reader-response theory, participants learn how they can encourage students to respond to texts and lead them from those first responses into analysis of both the text itself and their reading of it. Based on the tenets of backward design, the course looks at planning, organization, and assessment--articulating objectives and linking them to standards, teaching, and assessment. Introduces differentiation of instruction in support of meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts. Participants write the teaching plan for their first required Inquiry Work Sample.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Admission to Middle-Level/High School Program or consent of instructor.
Credits: 4 semester hours.

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LA 589 Professional Studies: Special Topics

Content: In-depth examination of topics relevant to practicing professionals. Course content is based upon recent research and directly informs practice.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.

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LA 591 Envisioning a Sustainable Society

Content: Consideration of cultural changes needed in response to the environmental crisis. Explores how modern industrial societies are premised on uninhibited growth, the planetary limits that challenge this possibility, the implications of a fundamental shift in our material conditions, and what it all may mean for those who work in public institutions. Students learn to integrate fundamental and emergent components of disciplinary knowledge in ways that extend learners' experience and enhance their own and students' capacity to solve problems. Engages pre- and inservice school personnel in meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 592 Oregon Writing Project: Workshop in Teaching Writing

Content: The four-week Invitational Summer Institute provides a supportive, dialogic environment in which to explore possibilities as writers, teachers and leaders. The theory and practice of writing are examined through individual demonstrations, reading and discussion of current research, and writing and sharing in writing response groups. Twenty-five K-12 participants develop their leadership potential for a variety of roles, including local school/district reform efforts that support the education and success of all of Oregon's diverse student population. Social justice and social action undergird the experience in an attempt to embrace democratic ideals.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Participants must submit an application and have an interview to be accepted into this program. .
Credits: 7 semester hours.

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LA 594 Oregon Writing Project: Practicum in Teaching Writing

Content: After the camaraderie of the Summer Institute, too often teachers return to the isolation of their classroom. But you can reclaim your institute community in the Saturday Seminars. Whether you long for the laughter and tears of teachers sharing stories, or you miss a community of teacher writers who seek to increase their students' love for writing or their ability to punctuate, you will fill your needs in the Saturday Seminars. Saturday Seminars are a year-long series of 3-hour workshops facilitated by OWP Director Linda Christensen, co-directors and teacher consultants. This class will focus on practical classroom strategies and discussions that help develop students as writers as well as teachers as writers. Topics vary from session to session, but each will include time for teacher writing and reflection as well as a framework or lesson to take back to the classroom.
Prerequisites: ED 592/692.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 598 Special Studies: New or Experimental Courses

Content: In-depth study of a special topic offered by the graduate school for the first time or on a temporary basis.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.

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LA 599 Independent Study

Content: Independent Study enables a student to pursue, in collaboration with a faculty member, an academic course not currently offered. To receive credit for independent study, the student consults with the faculty member before registration to define the course content, title, amount of credit, and academic evaluation. As a general rule, a graduate student may apply no more than three courses of independent study toward a graduate degree or licensure.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Consent of instructor and submission of application for Independent Study to academic department office.
Credits: 1-5 semester hours.

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LA 604 Bearing Witness: Writing, Documentary Studies, Social Justice

Content: What is the writer's, teacher's, or counselor's role in bearing witness? How do we observe, record, and interpret events from the everyday to the unspeakable? In this nonfiction workshop, we'll explore a continuum of creative nonfiction including literary journalism, essay, and memoir. We'll write from our own observations of cultural life, exploring ethical issues as well as style, voice, and literary form.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 607 Essay

Content: Participants examine a range of forms from memoir to expository essays inspired by language, cultural issues, and the natural sciences. Approaches explored will include those often associated with fiction: character, setting, and point of view.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 611 Audio Postcards

Content: Drawing on life experience, participants in this workshop will write profiles of personal heroes, encounters with other cultures, moments of creative discovery, and other compact experiences with indelible effects. From these short writings, we will select, deepen, and record our accounts for podcast, and other forms of web-based sharing.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 612 The Gift

Content: How do we maintain self and community in a society driven by market exchange? What are our cultural norms for gifts and reciprocity? How do gifts bind families and communities? How do we discover the "gift of labor," work that satisfies beyond financial compensation? What is the artist's role in a consumer culture? These are among the questions posed by poet Lewis Hyde in his classic study of literary anthropology, The Gift. These are also the questions that motivate our exploration of gifts in this course. We take Hyde's questions as springboards from which to launch our own investigation of culture, community, gift, story, and work.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 613 Literature for Children and Adolescents

Content: Exploration of literature for children and adolescents as a healthy, growing body of work and as an important resource for teachers. Class members investigate available literature, specific authors and illustrators, and their processes of composing. Participants also explore ways to incorporate a rich diet of literary experiences into their students' learning environments in support of meaningful learning experiences responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 2 semester hours.

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LA 614 Reading Comprehension: Theory and Practical Application

Content: In-depth exploration of current models and trends in reading comprehension and its cognitive and linguistic components. Students read widely from professional journals, explore and reflect on their personal reading processes, and do theoretical and practical projects to further their understanding. Examines factors that contribute to reading difficulty (from early childhood through adulthood), as well as important issues and questions about standardized tests, observational diagnostics, readability formulas, and the effectiveness and theoretical validity of published programs.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 616 Telling Lives

Content: Which stories are ours to tell and which carry us into the terrain of others' lives? Our own stories often intersect with those entrusted to us by family, friends, and strangers; all are shaped by the cultures we inhabit. In this workshop, we'll explore biography, ethnography, journalistic portraits, and documentary writing. Our texts will include our own writing as well as works by various writers and practitioners in documentary inquiry.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1 semester hour.

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LA 620 Practicum II: Innovations in Reading, pre-K-12

Content: Organizing, managing, and evaluating both classroom and school-wide K-12 reading programs. Students examine the textbook adoption process, participate in the development and use of a tool for evaluating reading texts, assess components of reading and writing programs, and learn to integrate reading and writing processes throughout the school grades to extend learners' experiences and enhance their own and students' capacities to solve literacy problems. This capstone course of the Language and Literacy Program must be taken at the end of the sequence.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Completion of Reading Endorsement courses or consent of instructor.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 621 Telling Your Story in Documentary Film

Content: Learn the basics of film production and create an original 5-10 minute documentary in this hands-on workshop. Under the guidance of award-winning filmmakers, students will team up to outline, shoot, and edit their own documentary shorts. This collaborative workshop is intended for first-time and intermediate filmmakers, and includes classes on story structure and production. Final projects will be screened at the Homegrown DocFest at the end of the term.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-1.5 semester hours.

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LA 627 Fiction

Content: This workshop is for writers who want to explore or refine the craft of fiction writing in a nurturing and challenging environment. We will read short fiction and discuss-different aspects of storytelling including conflict, plot, character development, atmosphere, point of view and dialogue. Works-in-progress-will be developed through individual conferences with the instructor and in class-discussion.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 630 Memoir

Content: Writing chapters from one's life story can produce gifts for family, and an important record of community life. In this workshop, we will read short passages from a variety of voices reflecting on lessons learned from life encounters and from interviews we conduct. We will use these passages as prompts for our own writing, leading to a gathering of short life chapters for further reflection and revision over time. No experience necessary, but a willing heart.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 632 Researching and Teaching the Language Arts

Content: Development of a framework, based on a wide range of research findings, from which to make informed decisions about curriculum and teaching approaches that engage students in listening, speaking, reading, and writing experiences that are responsive to individual differences, interests, developmental levels, and cultural contexts. Emphasis on framing teachers' own classroom inquiry through the adoption of habits of teacher research that focus on personal and scholarly reflection.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 634 Language Acquisition and Development

Content: Theories of how first and second languages (written and spoken) are acquired, the importance of first-language development and its relationship to the acquisition of other languages, and the relationship of language to cognitive development. Understanding of these issues is used to promote a school environment that honors diverse perspectives and maximizes language learning potential and ensures respect for communities whose languages or varieties of English differ from standard school English. Required for the Reading and ESOL/Bilingual Education endorsements. The initial course in the Reading Endorsement sequence and recommended preparation for other language arts offerings.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 3 semester hours.

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LA 638 Daily Writing in the Spirit of William Stafford

Content: You don't eat just once every few days. You don't speak just every week or so. Learning is continuous, and hunger is closer to breathing than to an annual rite. So why not write daily? In this workshop, we will feed on examples from the daily writing of William Stafford, and practice in the spirit of his work. The emphasis will be on the process of creation: creating texts the length of poems but for use in multiple genres. The goal will be to know what it feels like—in the body and in acts of sustaining witness—to practice the continuous writing life you have imagined.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 639 Special Studies: Oregon Writing Project

Content: Oregon Writing Project courses focus on the teaching of writing. Writing is essential to success--in school and the workplace. Yet writing is a skill that cannot be learned on the spot; it is complex and challenging. Our courses are taught with varying emphases based on grade level, content area, or specific genres. All of our courses help teach students to write in all subjects with clarity and style, seek deeper and more critical understanding of writing and the world, wake up their own voice and authority, take command of their own learning, and manage portfolios and other exhibition forms.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.

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LA 644 Practicum

Content: Supervised, on-site, pre-designed professional experience along with campus seminars involving discussions and presentations. Students explore the essential content knowledge, leadership, collaboration, and research skills of successful educators under the supervision of experienced field and campus supervisors.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-5 semester hours.

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LA 646 Exploring Life Stories: The Art of the Interview

Content: Writers, oral historians, ethnographers, teachers, counselors, families recording their stories all rely on interviews. In this workshop, we'll learn the interviewer's skills: how to listen and observe, frame questions, index and transcribe. We'll write together to bring the interviews to life on the page. We'll examine individual and social memory as well as ethical and political issues. We'll also explore the use of interviews in community projects and as the foundation of documentary studies.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 676 Special Studies: Northwest Writing Institute

Content: This course uses writing as a tool for inquiry and creative expression. Taught with varying emphases based on the cultural moment, the course offers Graduate Students and community members practice with writing, and reflection on the chapters in a life, and investigates how the practice of writing can deepen vocation. Students write in a learning community, and share works in progress. Offered in varied formats-meeting weekends, monthly over two terms, or in a traditional structure-to meet the needs of adult learners.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 689 Professional Studies: Special Topics

Content: In-depth examination of topics relevant to practicing professionals. Course content is based upon recent research and directly informs practice.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.

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LA 690 Imaginative Writing Seminar: Works in Progress

Content: Open to graduate students and to writers, filmmakers, digital storytellers, and creators in other media, this seminar is a collaborative studio for completing creative work, which also serves as the capstone course for the Certificate in Documentary Studies. The seminar directs the energies of the seminar community in the development of individual works in progress, with reference to the best in contemporary writing and documentary expressions in other media. Also listed as WCM-522/622.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 692 Oregon Writing Project: Workshop in Teaching Writing

Content: The four-week Invitational Summer Institute provides a supportive, dialogic environment in which to explore possibilities as writers, teachers and leaders. The theory and practice of writing are examined through individual demonstrations, reading and discussion of current research, and writing and sharing in writing response groups. Twenty-five K-12 participants develop their leadership potential for a variety of roles, including local school/district reform efforts that support the education and success of all of Oregon's diverse student population. Social justice and social action undergird the experience in an attempt to embrace democratic ideals.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Participants must submit an application and have an interview to be accepted into this program.
Credits: 7 semester hours.

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LA 694 Oregon Writing Project: Practicum in Teaching Writing

Content: After the camaraderie of the Summer Institute, too often teachers return to the isolation of their classroom. But you can reclaim your institute community in the Saturday Seminars. Whether you long for the laughter and tears of teachers sharing stories, or you miss a community of teacher writers who seek to increase their students' love for writing or their ability to punctuate, you will fill your needs in the Saturday Seminars. Saturday Seminars are a year-long series of 3-hour workshops facilitated by OWP Director Linda Christensen, OWP co-directors, and teacher consultants. This class will focus on practical classroom strategies and discussions that help develop students as writers as well as teachers as writers. Topics vary from session to session, but each will include time for teacher writing and reflection as well as a framework or lesson to take back to the classroom.
Prerequisites: ED 592/692.
Credits: 1-2 semester hours.

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LA 698 Special Studies: New or Experimental Courses

Content: In-depth study of a special topic offered by the graduate school for the first time or on a temporary basis.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.

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LA 699 Independent Study

Content: Independent Study enables a student to pursue, in collaboration with a faculty member, an academic course not currently offered. To receive credit for independent study, the student consults with the faculty member before registration to define the course content, title, amount of credit, and academic evaluation. As a general rule, a graduate student may apply no more than three courses of independent study toward a graduate degree or licensure.
Prerequisites: None.
Restrictions: Consent of instructor and submission of application for Independent Study to academic department office.
Credits: 1-5 semester hours.

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LA 989 Professional Studies: International Special Topics

Content: In-depth examination of topics relevant to practicing professionals. Course content is based upon recent research and directly informs practice.
Prerequisites: None.
Credits: 1-4 semester hours.